- Urðr, the Dís of örlög, is also the Dís of death. Because she determines the örlög and length of every human’s life, she also determines their death. She who lays the lots of life, lays the lots of death. She and her sisters reign over the past, present, and future; she reigns over and gathers under the scepter of her realm the generations of the past, present, and future. As the Dís of death and ruler of Jörmungrund, she is also called Hel. Hel is both the name of the realm of bliss in Jörmungrund, and its queen.(1)
- When one is about to die, their fylgja will appear before them,(2) right before she departs for Hel to prepare a feast for them.(3)One may dream before their death that these women shall come to them, heavy and drooping, and choose them as their companion; so it may happen that these are their fateful women.4 At this point, some may consider what sort of dwelling they will obtain in the land of the dead when the breath leaves their body, or what reward was earned by a ready devotion to the Goðin.5 By Hel’s summons, one will be called away to Óðinn’s þing, and they must obey the decrees of the Nornir.6 Each evening the maids of Hel call the dying to their home,7 for there is a time when every man shall journey hence8 to the otherworld, to stay in Hel’s high hall.9
- The fylgja hears of it before anyone else when her mistress, Urðr, has announced the doom of death against her favorite. She then leaves, which can be perceived in dreams10 or by revelations in other ways, and this is an unmistakable sign of death. But if the death-doomed person is not a níðingr, whom she in sorrow and wrath has left, then she by no means abandons him. They are like members of the same body, which can only be separated by níð. The hamingja or fylgja travels to Hel, her land of birth, to prepare an abode there for her favorite, which is to belong to her as well. It is as if they enter into a spiritual marriage.11 The fylgja meets her chosen after their third night’s separation from the body. It takes three days before they leave for the Underworld.12 At the same time, one may join their spouse or lover from Miðgarðr in their home there, if they are worthy of such.13
- The dead should fare to the Helþing well dressed and ornamented. Warriors carry their weapons of defense and attack, often still covered in the blood of their enemies. Women and children carry ornaments and objects that were cherished by them. Images of these objects that kinsmen and friends lay on the pyre follow the dead as evidence before the judges that they enjoyed the survivors’ esteem and affection. The appearance of the gathered at the þing of the dead shows how careful the survivors observe the law that commands respect for the dead and care for the remains of the deceased. Special shoes should be given to them, called Helskóar.14 Let a man ride to the þing washed and fed, although his garments are not too good; of his shoes and breeches let no one be ashamed, nor of his horse, although he does not have a good one.15
- Many die under conditions that make it impossible for kinsmen to observe these caring duties. Then strangers should take the place of family. The condition in which the dead arrive at the þing shows best if pious dispositions are prevailing in Miðgarðr; for noble hearts take the divine law to heart.16 Render the last service to the corpses you find on the ground, whether they have died from sickness, or are drowned, or are dead from weapons. Make a bath for those who are dead, wash their hands and their head, comb them and wipe them dry, before you lay them in the coffin, and pray for their blissful slumber.17
- Their nails should be clipped. At Ragnarökr it will happen that the ship Naglfar will loosen from its mooring. It is made from the nails of dead men, and for this reason it is worth considering the warning that if a person fares to Hel with untrimmed nails he contributes crucial material to Naglfar, a ship that both the Goðin and men would prefer not to see built.18 Naglfar, the largest ship, is owned by Muspellr-Loki.19
- It is our custom that he who gives an heirship- feast after kings or jarlar, and who enters upon the heritage should sit upon the footstool in front of the high-seat, until the full bowl, which is called the Bragarfull, is brought in. Then he should stand up, take the Bragarfull, make solemn vows to be fulfilled afterwards, point to the four corners with the horn, and thereupon empty the beaker. Then he should ascend the high-seat which his father had occupied; and thus he comes into the full heritage after his father.20
- Do not mourn too much for the loss of a loved one, for such tears can be cruel to those dead, for each one falls bloody on their breast, ice- cold and piercing, and full of sorrow.21 Such will cause them to be covered with the dew of sorrow, and will bring them back to visit their lamenting kinsman or woman to allay their sadness. One can also wake the dead with prayer, which is best done at night, for all dead warriors are more powerful in the darkness of night than in the light of day. It is said that the dead are easier to summon and listen more closely to earthly life once night has set in.22 Málrúnar will give speech to the dead, so they will walk and talk with you.23 Besides the power of sorrow and prayer, there is a third means of bringing the dead back. This is conjuration; but conjuring the dead is a níð, which makes the transgressor yield to the vættir of punishment.24
- The earthly death consists of the earthly matter, the lá and the lík, being separated from the person’s higher elements and staying behind on Miðgarðr. The dead who have fared to Jörmungrund are made up of önd, óðr, and litr. If one is sentenced to a second death at Gimlé, the önd and the litr goða will be separated from him at the Nágrindar. Then there remains only the óðr; and this receives a litr that corresponds with the condition of the óðr.25 The higher elements return to the Goðin, traveling to the afterworld; whereas the lower elements are spread across the earth, returning to the waters, to the plants, and to all that lives.
- It is our belief that the higher the smoke of the pyre rises in the air, the higher he will be raised whose pile it is; and the richer he will be, the more property that is consumed with him.26 Because the litr can be damaged in the flames of the pyre, an offering is made so that the fire will consume it, rather than the litr. This offering is customarily a goat.27
- The appearance of the outer body depends on the condition of the litr; that is, of the inner being. Beautiful women have a joyous fair litr. An emotion has influence upon the litr, and through it upon the blood and the appearance of the outer body. A sudden blushing, a sudden paleness, are among the results of this. Litr also signifies a hamr, a guise or earthly garb which persons skilled in magic can put on and off. The form seen when one travels towards Hel is none other than the litr, which shows distinctly what the dead one has been in the earthly life, and what care has been bestowed upon his dust. The washing, combing, dressing, ornamenting, and supplying of Helskóar of the dead body has influence on one’s looks when they are to appear before their judges.28
- When the dead return from Hel they can be either good or evil, depending on the nature of the person who dies. When they are good, they are called Hollar Vættir, when they are bad, Óvættir. The higher elements can return from the afterworlds if they are called forth, but only conjuration can raise the Óvættir. Then they are evil and dangerous, but the Hollar Vættir are honorable and benevolent and work for the benefit of their folk, which is why they are good to have around. For this reason people will often have family grave-mounds, where the ashes of the dead should be kept, near their home. Preceding important events in the ætt, these vættir gather and confer among themselves.29
- Óðinn has decreed that all dead men should be burned,30 but circumstances may arise where burial may be necessary. The elements of the dead one entombed in the grave-mound will continue their interaction with one another for a long while, forming a kind of entity that preserves his personality and qualities, because these were permeated with önd and óðr in mortal life. Thus, the grave-mound contains a doppelganger of the person who has gone down to the kingdom of death. These doppelgangers are called Haugbúar and Draugar. Draugr actually designates a tree- trunk cut off from its roots; the Haugbúi is called this because he is separated from his root of life, the óðr, and by degrees, slowly pays its debt to nature, going on to meet its dissolution.31
- It might also happen that the lower elements, when abandoned by óðr and önd, become a doppelganger in whom the vegetative and animal elements exclusively assert themselves. Such a creature is always tormented by animal desire of food, and does not seem to have any feeling or memory of bonds tied in life. In such cases, it is thought that the lower elements of the deceased consigned to the grave were never in his lifetime sufficiently permeated by his óðr and önd to enable these qualities to give the corpse an impression of the rational personality and human character of the deceased. In one of this sort, the vegetative element, united with his dust, still asserts itself, so that hair and nails continue to grow as on a living being, and the animal element, which likewise continues to operate in the one buried, visits him with hunger and drives him out of the grave to suck the blood of surviving kinsmen.32 The dead are burnt to protect survivors from such beings, but if buried, graves are built and rites spoken over the dead to keep the Haugbúar from leaving the grave, to prepare a peaceful, uninterrupted sleep for them, and thus protect the survivors from affliction by them.33
- Once a person has died, their higher elements remain around the corpse for three days, and attend their own Helför.34 All will have a guide that will lead them to Hel, which appears before them right before their death, carrying their summons to the Helþing.35 Foremost among them are the Valkyrjur, beautiful maidens with contemplative faces. Wherever a battle takes place, they appear fully armed there on their horses, though some wear feather guises, and with their spear shafts point out the champions whom Óðinn and Freyja have selected for their halls, and they carry the fallen to Jörmungrund, and from there on Bifröst to Ásgarðr.
- Urðr sends maidservants of a very different sort to the inhabitants of Miðgarðr who are not among the heroic dead,36 each by the nature of their death. To those who surrender to the burden of years comes the Dís who is the handmaiden of the bent and stooping.37 This kind-hearted Dís removes the burden which Elli puts on men, and which gradually gets too heavy for them to bear.38 Children have their guides, who are motherly, tender, and kind. To those who were snatched away by plague or other epidemics come Leikn and the beings of Niflhel who resemble her, and those who die of disease are carried away by the corresponding vættir of disease to the Helþing to be judged by the Goðin.39
- One must travel to the uppermost north, into Jötunheimr, to get to Jörmungrund. The entire road there is said to be fraught with peril and is almost impassable for mortals. You must sail across the ocean, which girds the earth, putting the sun and stars behind your back, journey beneath the realm of night, and finally pass into the regions, which suffer perennial darkness without a glimmer of daylight. From there, in the midst of Jötunheimr’s monstrous horde, you
will find the passage towards Hel.
- To begin with, all of the dead travel a common path, called Helvegr. They are directed on the same traveled road, and the same Helgrind opens itself daily for the multitudes of spirits who wait for different lots. Women and children; youths, men, and the elderly; those who were busy in the peaceful arts and those who stained weapons with blood; those who lived in accordance with Óðinn’s and Urðr’s decrees and those who broke them they all have to take the same course. They come on foot and on horse,41 for the horse that was cremated with its master afterwards brings the hero down to Hel.42 Those burned with their ships will ride the wooden horse to Hel.43 Beautifully adorned Valkyrjur, the mild being who helps the old-aged, the kind spirit-guides of children, or the black and white Leikn and the gloomy vættir of disease lead them there. They gather outside the eastern Helgrindar, one of the four situated at each point of Jörmungrund.44
- The cords of Hel were tightly
bound round my sides; I would rend them,
but they were strong.
It is not easy to go free.
- I alone knew
how on all sides
my pains increased.
Each eve the maids of Hel called me to
- I saw the sun,
true star of day,
sink in its roaring home;
but I heard
Hel’s grated doors
heavily creaking on the other side.
- I saw the sun,
beset with blood-red streams:
then I was quickly declining from this world.
In many ways
she appeared mightier than she was before.
- I saw the sun,
and it seemed to me
as if I had seen a glorious Goð: I bowed before her
for the last time,
in the world of men.
- I saw the sun:
she beamed forth so
that I seemed to know nothing; but Gjöll’s streams
roared from the other side, mixed with much blood.
- I saw the sun,
with quivering eyes, appalled and shrinking; for in great measure
was my heart dissolved in sickness.
- I saw the sun,
I had almost declined from the world: my tongue had
become like wood,.
and all was cold without me.
- I saw the sun, never again,
since that gloomy day;
for the mountain waters
closed over me,
and I went, called from torments.45
- The high road in Jörmungrund first goes west through deep and dark dales. At one place the dead have to go across a mile wide heath that is overgrown with thorns and has no trails. Then it is good to have Helskóar as protection for the feet. Because of this, a dead man’s relatives should not neglect to bind Helskóar to the body before it is burned.46 Thus, it is cutomary to bind the Helskóar to men, so that they shall walk on to Valhöll.47 It is certainly true that these shoes, just like everything else placed with the dead, such as clothes, weapons, and ornaments, are burned up with the body.48 Everything in creation, even those things crafted by humans, has an inner substance and an inner form, and it is the inner being of the objects laid on the pyre that follows the dead to Hel. The care the survivors have for the dead is reckoned by these goods, and if they have Helskóar they come across the heath with well-kept feet. If they do not have them, and in their lives they have been unmerciful towards those who have walked the thorny paths of life, then they do not get across it without torn and bloody feet. But for the merciful, who lack Helskóar, there are some hanging from a tree which grows from where the thorny path begins.49 They walk along a path worn by long ages of travelers.50
- After this the dead come to a river with rushing water in which sharp-edged irons fill its torrents.51 The bed of this stream forms a natural boundary between the human and the afterworlds.52 This is the river Gjöll, here much mixed with the blood of the unmerciful, which divides Jörmungrund’s northerly and southerly regions, flowing east to west. Foot wide boards float there, where no bridge is to be found. The boards give support when the feet of the merciful step on them, and carry them over the river unharmed.53 The planks represent their good thoughts, good words, and good deeds.54 They slip away from the feet of the unmerciful, who fall into the river and wade through it in severe pain. Although they are terribly cut-up by the irons, they appear without a mark on them from this when they come up onto the other strand.
- On the other side the dawn begins and the green regions lie in the break of day with the Gjöll
river flowing through them.
further, they again stumble on the river of blue- black water, swirling in headlong descent and weapons of various kinds are spinning in its
Again the dead must cross this 57
the maiden guarding it is named Móðguðr. Once over the bridge, they come to a fork in the road. One path goes north to Mímir’s realm, one south to Urðr’s fountain. Here is Gimlé or Vingólf, where the Helþing is held to pronounce
river, but here they travel over the Gjallarbrú. The bridge is roofed with shining gold, and
judgments over the dead.
- All of this walking takes place in unbroken silence. The tongues of the dead are cold and numb and do not make a sound. Neither can their footsteps be heard, for they have the litr of dead men. Their horses, when they arrive on such, noiselessly touch their hooves to the ground of the kingdom of the dead. The gold-laid bridge rumbles only under the hooves of the steeds of
- Our ancestors called the funeral proceedings Helför, to honor the commencement of the journey to Urðr’s domain, which lasts nine nights.61 The path of the dead leads them over mountains and through valleys, towards the þing where they will be judged by the Goðin,62 so during this time we pray for their safe voyage and good judgment before the court.63
- When the dead reach the þingstaðr they sit in long rows in front of the holy ring of the stones of justice. Here they are awaited by their fylgja, who went before them to Hel and now sit beside their ward. Unfortunate is the one who has no fylgja at the Helþing, where the judgments are passed that have eternal validity.64
- Your cattle shall die, your kindred shall die, you yourself shall die, but the fair fame
of him who has earned it never dies.
- Your cattle shall die, your kindred shall die, you yourself shall die, one thing I know which never dies:
the judgment on each one dead.65
- The third root of Yggdrasill extends to the south, and beneath that root is the holy well, Urðarbrunnr. There the Goðin have their places of judgment. Every day the Æsir ride down there on Bifröst, and come through the southern Helgrindar into Urðr’s realm, when they cross several rivers to their destination.66 The Æsir ride on their steeds each day when they go to pronounce dooms at Yggdrasill’s ash.67 Þórr rides across the sky, while Máni’s path thunders beneath him,68 then he walks to the þing, wading the rivers Körmt and Örmt, and the two Kerlaugar. Þórr must wade these waters each day, when he goes forth to pronounce dooms beneath the ash-tree Yggdrasill; for the Ásbrú- Bifröst is all on fire, the holy waters boil.69
- When the Goðin have arrived from Ásgarðr, dismounted from their rides, and taken their judges’ seats, the proceedings begin. The dead are now in their places, and we may be sure that their guides have not been slow on their journey to the þing.70 The Æsir sit as judges in the south at Urðarbrunnr.71
- Óðinn sits in the high-seat and the other Æsir sit on þingsæti on each side. Before them sits the dead in their rows; they are pale and have the marks of the death they endured. They have to listen to the legal proceedings and receive their judgment in silence, provided they do not have Málrúnar, which give them the power to speak and defend themselves against any charges.72 You must know Málrúnar, if you do not wish that the mighty one, Óðinn, shall requite you with consuming woe for the injury you have caused. You must wind, weave, and place together all those rúnar in that þing where the host of people go into the full judgments.73
- It very rarely happens that someone has these rúnar; if such is the case, he gets to step up onto a rostrum that was built for this purpose and state what he can in his defense. But no one does this other than those who are abandoned by their fylgja, and because of this do not have any solicitors at the þing. The others do not need to speak, as little as they are capable of it, because every fylgja defends their ward. She is a benevolent witness for him, and also the most reliable before the court, because she knows all of his thoughts, motives, and deeds. It is rarely required that she speak, for her presence next to the dead is a proof in and of itself that he is not a níðingr.
- Urðar Orð is Urðr’s judgment, which must come to pass, no matter whether it concerns life or death.74 No one may deny Urðr’s judgment, however lightly spoken.75 Those who are to join their ancestors in the lands of bliss are given the judgment called Lofstírr, whereas the judgment of the damned is called Námæli.76
- The Goðin judge human faults and frailties leniently. During their time of learning they have made mistakes as well. Those who have come to the þing can expect a good judgment if they went through life free from deceit, honorable, helpful, and without fear of death if they observed respect for the Goðin and their hofin, and tended to the duties of kindred and to the dead. Thus, they must have followed the laws given to us by the Goðin, and lived by their virtues.77
- I sat in the Nornir’s seat for nine days,
thence I was mounted on a horse: there the Gýgr’s sun
through the dripping clouds of heaven.
- Without and within,
I seemed to traverse all
the nine netherworlds:
up and down,
I sought an easier way,
where I might have the readiest paths.78
- Those who are declared worthy of bliss by the þing receive a taste of the mead before they leave, which removes every mark that remains on the dead, and restores their warmth of life. Their bodies again become corporeal, their tongues loosen, their life-force is enhanced, their strength increased, and it grants them the ability to forget their sorrows without obliterating dear memories or making one forget that which can be remembered without longing or worrying.79 Óðinn will hand them to drink in Mímir’s Gjallarhorn, a cool, bitter drink, to forget their past afflictions. This drink is made from the liquids of the Underworld fountains.80 They shall drink the Dýrar Veigar, though they have lost life and lands;81 here stands the mead, the Skírar Veigar, prepared for the dead.82 Thus this drink is a mixture of the liquids from the wells that maintain Yggdrasill’s life, the same as was given to Heimdallr in preparation for his trip to Miðgarðr, which keeps them alive through the ages.83 The blessed dead have the morning dews that fall near Urðarbrunnr as their nourishment.84
- When those who have the Lofstírr pronounced over them leave the þing, they are accompanied by their fylgja to their beautiful home, which these maidens have put in order for their wards.85 All men who are righteous shall live in that place called Gimlé or Vingólf86 in the green worlds of the Goðin.87 Children shall go to Mímir, who owns the field of ancient fathers in Glasisvellir.88 But evil men go to Hel, where they are judged, and from there into Nifhel, which is below the ninth world.89
- They are eager to see the many wonders of the glorious regions and to visit kinsmen and friends who have gone before them to their final destination. The fylgja escorts her chosen on joyous paths, called Munvegir that are the home of the honey-ships [flowers].90 There they see rich nobles dressed in colorful robes; passing these by, they eventually come upon the sunny region, which produces vegetation, where they will spend their afterlife.91 Here the inquisitive can participate in the Leita Kynnis, where one seeks out and converses with ancestors and progenitors, and learn the remarkable örlög of their family, indeed of all the ancients, told by those who actually saw what they speak of.92
- Each morning the soot-red cock in Hel’s halls
crows in the Underworld.
In honoring the þing
and those declared honorable by it, he calls out:
Rise, you men, and praise the justice which is most perfect! Behold the demons are put to flight!”94
1 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 63.
2 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
3 Gunnars Slagr 9, Vegtamskviða 12. 4 Based on Völsungasaga ch. 36.
5 Gesta Danorum bk. 8.
6 Based on Ynglingasaga ch. 52.
7 Sólarljóð 38.
8 Fáfnismál 10.
9 Egill’s Saga ch. 45.
10 Baldr’s Draumar 1, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
11 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71, Gísla Saga Surssonar.
12 Vendidad, Fargard XIX: 30, Haug-West, Hadokt Nask (Yt. XXII: 9), Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 2.1 ch. 38.
13 Gylfaginning 49, Helgakviða Hundingsbana II str.44.
14 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
15 Hávamál 61.
16 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
17 Sigrdrifumál 33-4.
18 Gylfaginning 51, Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
19 Gylfaginning 43, cp. Völuspá 51, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 78.
20 Paraphrase of Ynglingasaga ch. 40.
21 Based on Helgakviða Hundingsbana II, str. 43.
22 Based on Helgakviða Hundingsbana II str. 41-47, 49, Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 39, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 96.
23 Hávamál 158, Guðrúnarkviða I str. 23, Sigrdrifumál 12.
24 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 39, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 95, Gesta Danorum bk. 1.
25 Based on Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 39, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 95.
26 Based on Ynglingasaga ch. 10.
27 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 2.1 ch. 36, Rigveda X:16. 1, 3, 4.
28 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 95.
29 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 95, Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 39, cp. Ynglingasaga ch. 8.
30 Ynglingasaga ch. 8.
31 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 39, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 95.
44 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 59, 68, 93; vol. 2.1 ch. 39, Sólarljóð 39.
45 Sólarljóð 37-45.
46 Based on Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 68.
47 Gísla Saga Surssonar ch. 24.
48 Based on Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Ynglingasaga ch. 8, 22; Gísla Saga Surssonar 24, Ibn Fadlan, Gylfaginning 49.
49 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71, Gísla Saga Surssonar, which states that this tree is a linden, but may actually be Yggdrasill itself.
50 Gesta Danorum bk. 1.
51 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
52 Based on Gesta Danorum bk. 8.
53 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 49, 71.
54 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 2.1 ch. 37, cp. Hadokht Nask.
55 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
56 Gesta Danorum bk. 1.
57 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 49.
58 Gylfaginning 49.
59 Based on Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 69-71, Gylfaginning 3, 15, 17; Grímnismál 29.
60 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Gylfaginning 49, Sólarljóð 44, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 95.
61 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 57, 68; Gylfaginning 49.
62 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 69-71.
63 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 2.1 ch. 37, Rigveda X:16. 4, 11, 12.
64 Based on Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 70-1.
65 Hávamál 76-7.
32 Investigations into Germanic ch. 95.
33 Investigations into Germanic ch. 36.
34 Investigations into Germanic ch. 38, Icelandic traditions.
35 Investigations into Germanic ch. 64.
Mythology vol. 1 Mythology vol. 2.1 Mythology vol. 2.1 Mythology vol. 1
36 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 64, 66; Helgakviða Hjörvarþssonar 28, Völundarkviða open prose, Helreið Brynhildar 6.
37 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, cp. Ynglingatal 30, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 2.1 ch. 37.
38 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 67, vol. 2.1 ch. 37, Gylfaginning 47, Ynglingasaga ch. 44 (Ynglingatal 30).
39 Based on Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 64, 67.
40 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 49, 65; Gesta Danorum bk. 8, Gylfaginning 8.
41 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 68, 74.
42 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 60, cp. Gylfaginning 15 on Baldr’s horse.
43 Ynglingatal 9.
44 Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Investigations in Germanic Mythology vol.1 ch . 59 , 68,93 ; v 2.1 ch . 39 , sólarlj68 39 .
45 Sólarljóð 37-45
46 Based on Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol ch . 68
47 Gisla Saga Surssonar ch . 24 .
48 Based on Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 . Ynglingasaga ch . 8 , 22 ; Gisla Saga Surssona 24 , Ibn Fadlan , Gylfaginning 49 .
49 Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Investigations in Germanic Mythology vol.1 ch . 71 , Gisla Sa Surssonar , which states that this tree is a lind but may actually be Yggdrasill itself .
50 Gesta Danorum bk , I.
51 Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Investigations in Germanic Mythology vol.1 ch.71 .
52 Based on Gesta Danorum bk . 8
53 Our Father's Godsaga ch.38 , Investigations in Germanic Mythology vol.1 ch . 49 , 71 .
54 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol . ch.37 , cp . Hadokht Nask .
55 Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Investigations in Germanic Mythology vol.1 ch . 71 .
56 Gesta Danorum bk . 1 . 57 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol . ch . 49 .
58 Gylfaginning 49
59 Based on Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol ch . 69-71 , Gylfaginning 3 , 15 , 17 , Grimnism 29 .
60 Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Gylfaginning 49 Sólarljóð 44 , Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol.1 ch.95 .
61 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol . ch . 57 , 68 , Gylfaginning 49 .
62 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol . ch . 69-71 .
63 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol . ch . 37 , Rigveda X : 16 . 4 , 11 , 12
64 Based on Our Father's Godsaga ch . 38 , Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol ch . 70-1
65 Hávamál 76-7 .
66 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Gylfaginning 15, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 69-71.
67 Grímnismál 30.
68 Based on Haustlaung 14.
69 Grímnismál 29, Gylfaginning 15.
70 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71.
71 Based on Gylfaginning 15, Skáldskaparmál 51 (a strophe by Eilir Guðrúnarson, where Christ is said to “have his throne south at Urðarbrunnr”).
72 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 70.
73 Sigrdrifumál 12.
74 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 70.
75 Fjölsvinnsmál 48.
76 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 70.
77 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 71, The Nature of Ásatrú ch. 3.
78 Sólarljóð 51-2.
79 Based on Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 72-3.
80 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 72-3, Skáldskaparmál 2, Sigdrífumál 12, Hrafnagaldr Óðins 16-17, Guðrúnarkviða II str. 21.
81 Paraphrase Helgakviða Hundingsbana II str. 44, cp. Hyndluljóð 48.
82 Paraphrase Vegtamskviða 12, cp. Hyndluljóð 48.
83 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 2.1 ch. 5, see above (XX. 3).
84 Vafþrúðnismál 45, Völuspá 19, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 74.
85 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch.74.
86 Gylfaginning 3.
87 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 74, Sonatorrek.
88 Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 2.1 ch. 5, Rigveda X:135.
89 Gylfaginning 3.
90 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Sonatorrek 10, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 74.
91 Based on Gesta Danorum bk. 1.
92 Our Father’s Godsaga ch. 38, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 74.
93 Völuspá 44.
94 Avesta, Vendidad 18, Investigations into Germanic Mythology vol. 1 ch. 63.